Fingerprints of classical chaos in manipulation of cold atoms in the dynamical tunneling experiments


The recent pioneering experiments of the [Nature 412, 52 (2001)] and [Science, 293, 274 (2001)] groups have demonstrated the dynamical tunneling of cold atoms interacting with standing electromagnetic waves. It has been shown [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 253201 (2002)], that the tunneling oscillations observed in these experiments correspondingly stems from two- and three-Floquet quantum state mechanism and can be controlled by varying the experimental parameters. The question where are the fingerprints of the classical chaotic dynamics in a quantum dynamical process which is controlled by 2 or 3 quantum states remains open. Our calculations show that although the effective □ associated with the two experiments is large, and the quantum system is far from its semiclassical limit, the quantum Floquet-Bloch quasienergy states still can be classified as regular and chaotic states. In both experiments the quantum and the classical phase-space entropies are quite similar, although the classical phase space is a mixed regular-chaotic space. It is also shown that as the wave packet which is initially localized at one of the two inner regular islands oscillates between them through the chaotic sea, it accumulates a random phase which causes the decay of the amplitude of the oscillating mean momentum, P(t)□, as measured in both experiments. The extremely high sensitivity of the rate of decay of the oscillations of P(t)□ to the very small changes in the population of different Floquet-Bloch states, is another type of fingerprint of chaos in quantum dynamics that presumably was measured in the NIST and AUSTIN experiments for the first time. © 2005 The American Physical Society.

Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics
Shmuel Osovski
Shmuel Osovski
Asst. Prof.

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